The second fragment of “unredeemed Rumania” dwells in Bukowina, immediately north of Transylvania.
This land of beech trees among the Carpathian foothills has been far more continuously a part of the Rumanian realm than has Transylvania. Indeed, it was only in 1777 that Austria obtained from the Sultan of Turkey (the overlord of the Rumanian principalities) the cession of this, one of the richest regions of Moldavia, both in resources and in traditions; for it was here, at Sucheava, on a tributary of the Sereth, that the old Moldavian Princes had their metropolis, while in the ancient convent of Putna their bones were laid.
These two parts of “exiled Rumania” are subject to Hungary and to Austria, respectively, the one governed from Budapest, the other from Vienna.
The third fragment, Bessarabia—so-called from the ancient Bassa-Rab Princes of Moldavia—is at present a part of the Russian Empire.
- The region between the Dniester (which was the Russian boundary at the beginning of the nineteenth century) and the Pruth (the great tributary of the Danube, on which Czernowitz stands, the capital of Bukowina, which Brusiloff and Pflanzer recently put on the map,) was ceded by Turkey to Russia after the war of 1812, which Byron “wrote up” in “Don Juan,” taking his hero through its battles.
- In 1856, after her defeat in the Crimean war, Russia gave it back to Turkey, under pressure from England and France.
- Three years later, as we saw, the two principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia united to form modern Rumania, the Rumanian national ideal being thereby immensely stimulated. But after the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878, in which the Rumanian armies, under their Prince Carol, fought so gallantly beside the Russians, the southwestern part of Bessarabia was given once more to Russia and Rumania received, as a very inadequate solatium, the great Danube delta, called Dubrudja.
But there are more than a million Rumanians in the territory which Russia got, and there will be no cordial relation toward Russia until these are once again under the Rumanian National Government.
RUMANIA’S WOMEN ARE NOTED FOR THEIR BEAUTY
THE NATIONAL BANK OF RUMANIA, IN BUCHAREST
THE LATE CARMEN SYLVA,
Poet and wife of the late King Carol I
THRONE ROOM OF THE PALACE AT BUCHAREST
RUMANIAN PEASANTS, WHO ARE NATIVES OF TRANSYLVANIA, UNDER GUARD
IN SYLVAN RUMANIA—PICTURESQUE TYPES OF PEASANTS
THE LATE KING CAROL I,
Called founder of modern Rumania
THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS IN BUCHAREST
A FAMILY OF RUMANIAN PEASANTS AT HOME, IN THE DANUBE COUNTRY
A STREET IN BUCHAREST, THE CAPITAL
There remain detached Rumanian colonies, south of the Danube, in Bulgaria, Serbia, Macedonia the so-called Vlaks or Wallachs—for the most part shepherds on the uplands of the mountains; but it is difficult to see how anything short of wholesale migration can bring them into the Rumanian fold. And, indeed, finally to tranquilize the Balkans, a wholesale exchange system is needed.
The people of Bucharest, therefore, have good reason to be grave in the face of this great problem; they have now joined the Allies, and if the Allies win, Rumania stands to regain both her fragments under Austria-Hungary; and it is said that Russia has promised Rumania Bessarabia also.